Frequently Asked Questions
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the capacity of a device or a system to maintain its serviceability (without failures) under the target electromagnetic environmental conditions.
Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is the electromagnetic radiation or conduction produced by electrical circuits that are involved with rapidly changing signals. This radiation, a by-product of the emitting source normal operation, causes induction or coupling of unwanted signals (interference and/or noise) into other circuits. These interrupt, obstruct, or otherwise degrade or limit the effective performance of those other circuits. The interference signals can be induced intentionally, for example, as part of some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, inter modulation noise products, and the like. RFI is also known as Electromagnetic Interference or EMI.
Potential sources of electromagnetic emissions include radio transmitters, power lines, electronic circuits, lightning, lamp dimmers, electric motors, arc welders, solar flares and just about everything that utilizes or creates electromagnetic energy. Potential receptors include radio receivers, electronic circuits, appliances, people, and just about everything that utilizes or can detect electromagnetic energy.
The way electromagnetic energy propagates from a source to a receptor fall into one of the following four categories.
Conductance (electric current)
Inductive coupling (magnetic field)
Capacitive coupling (electric field)
Radiation (electromagnetic field)
The coupling paths are often comprised of a complex combination of these routes, making the path difficult to be identified, even when the source and/or receptor are known. There may be multiple coupling paths, and steps taken to attenuate one may enhance another.
The designers and manufacturers of electronic equipment must concern themselves with EMI/RFI for two reasons:
Their products must operate properly in the application environment, often in the presence of significant levels of EMI/RFI, and
Their products must not emit EMI/RFI that may interfere with any electronic systems. The requirement for product reliable function has given rise to legal regulations to ensure EMC among the different types of electronic equipment. Any system that fails to meet the requirements of these regulations is prohibited for use.
Filtering, proper circuit design, shielding, grounding, isolation, separation and orientation, circuit impedance match control, cable design and other noise cancellation techniques are among the most common methods used for EMI reduction.
Why should I choose filtered connectors ?
The incentive to use filtered connectors lies in the benefits they bestow:
Speeding up Time to Market — EMC design is the bottleneck of product time to market. Filtered Connectors simplify the design, hence saving design time and improving time to market.
Enhancing Product and Design Cost Effectiveness — Proper EMC system design could consume many costly design hours. The use of Filtered Connectors significantly shortens design time, and reduces the total system development cost .
Easy Retrofit — Failed EMC tests? Use filtered connectors as drop-in replacements of the system standard connectors. These replacements improve the EMC performance and time to market of the system while cutting down redesign costs.
Saving Space, Labor and Storage — Filtered connectors significantly reduce PCB area and labor time needed for installation of different components. Part list single row and single box storage also result in reduction of Production Planning and Control costs.
Attenuation improvement compared to any discrete component filters assembled on PCB — High frequency attenuation of Pi filter section incorporated into filtered connectors is up to 40dB higher then that of equivalent discrete filters assembled on PCB.
Filtered Connectors are ideal for filtering input/output interfaces of both military and commercial systems.
All filtered connectors meet extreme environmental requirements.
Connectors can also include transient protection to ensure durability to transients as well as to fast and high-power pulses (E-Bomb). The entire assembly is integrated into a single package, allowing each contact to be fitted with unique filter type and level.
Typical use of the filtered connectors is in the following application types:
Systems — Airborne, Naval, Ground, Ground Mobile, Telecommunications, Medical.
Signal Types – Power, Audio, RS-232, RS-422, RS-485, Fast Ethernet, LVDS and other.
No. No military specifications have been issued for filtered connectors. However, our filtered connectors are based on standard military connectors.
Our products meet the stringent specifications of military standards: MIL-C-38999, MIL-C-26482, MIL-C-5015, MIL-C-83733, ARINC 404 etc.
In normal use, the case of the filtered connector is bolted to the framework or chassis of the electronic system it protects. Mounting and wiring of filtered connectors have critical effect on its performance.
Since the filtered connector is a barrier to high frequency signals, grounding the product to the system chassis ground has critical importance.
Filtered connectors must be mounted on the system conductive enclosure to provide it with the best possible grounding. Do not use non conductive plating on the enclosure.
Filter types of C, L, J (inverse L), Double L, Double J, Pi and Hi (Double Pi) can be incorporated into Filtered Connectors.
No. Most of our connectors have multiple filter types and levels. In fact, each contact can have a unique filter type, independent of all other contacts.
The connectors are designed to meet the customer system requirements.
Yes. Transient protected connectors are available with energy levels of 0.1J and 0.3J and with a wide range of Working Voltages. Transient protection of 0.1J is available for Working Voltages of 3.3V, 5.6V, 9V, 14V, 18V, 26V, and 30V. 0.3J.
Transient protection is available for Working Voltages of 3.3V, 5.6V, 14V, 18V and 26V. In most connectors, incorporating transient protection of 0.1J & 0.3J will not enlarge the mechanical size of the connector.
We can incorporate higher levels of transient protection but the mechanical size of the connector might increase in the back part.
Yes. Combined filtered and transient protected connectors are available.
In fact, each contact can have a unique combination of filter type and level and transient protection level and working voltage independent of all other contacts.
Filtered, transient protected and combined connectors do not change the dimensions of the basic connectors.
No, filtered connectors can mate with standard plugs.
Reference Standards are MIL-STD-461, MIL-STD-464 MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, MIL-STD-1399, RTCA-DO/160D, EN-61000, CISPR and others.
Most military connectors, filtered or transient protected, are supplied sealed per military requirement of <10¯³ cm³ / Sec at Δ P=1atm.
Per customer request, filtered or transient protected connectors can be supplied hermetically sealed per <10¯⁵ cm³ / Sec at Δ P=1atm.
Non-filtered connectors, including D-Type connectors, can also be hermetically sealed to withstand military environmental requirements.